Diamonds are mined in volcanic rocks. The largest sites can be found in Botswana, Russia (Siberia), Canada and South Africa. The total global mining of rough diamonds exceeds 100 million carats per year.
The diamonds are found in the volcanic rocks of Kimberlite and Lamborghini, right in the chimneys of the extinct volcanoes. It benefits from surface or underground mining. For one diamond carat (0.20 grams), about 250 tons of rock is needed. Most diamonds benefit from this method, but it is very costly.
Parts of diamonds that have loosened due to erosion and have been deposited into rivers or the sea can be obtained in a way that is much less complicated.
Until the 18th century, India was the only diamond supplier in the world. Today, diamonds are mined on many continents. The largest producers are Botswana, Russia (Siberia), Canada, South Africa, Democratic Republic of Congo, Australia, Angola and Namibia.
THE BIGGEST MINES IN THE WORLD
In Botswana, rich diamond deposits are of exceptional quality.
Orapa (started mining in 1967) - the third most productive mine to date
Jwaneng (started mining in 1973) - Today, the mine produces about a quarter of the world's total mining of jewellery diamonds and is the second most productive mine of the present day. Only less than 1 percent of extracted stones are not suitable for jewellery purposes.
All Botswana Mines are operated by Debswana Diamond Company Ltd. This is the link between De Beers and the Botswana Government, the same shares in this company.
Russian deposits are also very rich, the largest of which was discovered between 1954 and 1959. Since then, Russian mines have produced over 150 million carats of diamonds, a fifth of which is suitable for jewellery and investment.
Mines: in the Jakut area of Siberia
Udačnyj - the fourth most productive mine in the world
Jubilejnyj - the eighth most productive mine in the world
The stones are on average larger than other mines and their quality is usually quite high. About 37 percent of diamonds are suitable for use in jewellery. They benefit from very demanding conditions, temperatures are several degrees below freezing and the soil is frozen up to a depth of 300 meters, which also drastically increases the total mining. It is controlled by Alrosa, where the Russian state has the main ownership.
Diamond mining in Canada began in 1985 and takes place in the North Canadian area of Lac de Gras where diamond kimberlite is present.
Mines: In North Canada
Diavik - the sixth most productive mine in the world
Ekati - the seventh most productive mine in the world, the mine is only accessible on the ground in the winter after the terrain freezes. The majority owner of Ekati Mine, BHP Diamonds Inc., markets only high quality stones cut directly in Canada. The life of the mine is estimated to be 2023.
South African Republic
Some of the most famous diamond mines in the world are in South Africa. Mining began in 1886 when a local farmer found a glittering stone, a rough diamond, on his estate. The stone is exhibited in a local museum, is named Eureka and weighs over 21 carats.
At the end of the 19th century, diamond fever began and, within a few years, many significant diamonds were discovered.
Finsch - the tenth most productive mine in the world
Others: Dutoitspan, Bultfontein, De Beers, Wesselton, Premier
Productivity of the Kimberlite in the JAR is about 1 ct of diamond per 1 ton of extracted rock. Many stones are of high quality. South African mines have found, for example, the largest crude diamond - Cullinan, which weighed roughly 3000 ct.
Did you know that one of the world's most famous diamonds, the Star of South Africa, was found in South Africa? It weighed 83.5 carats and weighed 47.69 ct after cutting into a brilliant tear. Its price is about £ 225,000. Interestingly, a local shepherd found the stone and exchanged it with a farmer for 500 sheep, 10 oxen and 1 horse.
Did you know that the world's rough diamond production exceeds 100 million carats per year? Of that, about 80 percent are industrial diamonds and about 20 percent jewelery stones.
Gia.edu. (2016). Natural Diamonds | Diamond Stone – GIA. [online] Available at: http://www.gia.edu/diamond [Accessed 6 Dec. 2016].